Freedom of religion in Singapore

Freedom of religion in Singapore is guaranteed under the Constitution. However, the Government of Singapore restricts this right in some circumstances. The Government has restricted the Jehovah’s Witnesses and banned the Unification Church. The Government does not tolerate speech or actions that it deems could adversely affect racial or religious harmony.

Singapore has an area of 270 square miles (700 km2) and a total population of 5.31 million (as of June 2013), of whom 3.6 million are citizens or permanent residents. According to a 2000 government survey, 85 percent of citizens and permanent residents profess some religious faith. Of this group, 51 percent practice Buddhism, Taoism, ancestor worship, or other religious practice traditionally associated with the ethnic Chinese population. Approximately 15 percent of the population is Muslim, 15 percent Christian, and 4 percent Hindu. The remainder is composed of atheists, agnostics, and adherents of other religions including small Sikh, Jewish, Zoroastrian, and Jain communities. Among Christians, the majority of whom are ethnic Chinese, Protestants outnumber Roman Catholics by slightly more than two to one.[citation needed]

Approximately 77.8% of the resident population is ethnic Chinese, 14% ethnic Malay, and 7% ethnic Indian. Nearly all ethnic Malays are Muslim and most ethnic Indians are Hindu. The ethnic Chinese population is divided between Buddhism, Taoism, and Christianity, or is nonreligious.

Foreign missionaries are active in the country.

The Constitution provides for freedom of religion; however, the Government restricts this right in some circumstances. The Constitution provides that every citizen or person in the country has a constitutional right to profess, practice, or propagate his or her religious belief so long as such activities do not breach any other laws relating to public order, public health, or morality. There is no state religion.

All religious groups are subject to government scrutiny and must be registered legally under the Societies Act. The Government deregistered the country’s congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses in 1972 and the Unification Church in 1982, making them unlawful societies. Such a designation makes it impossible to maintain a legal identity as a religious group, with consequences relating to owning property, conducting financial transactions, or holding public meetings.

The Government plays an active but limited role in religious affairs. For example, the Government seeks to ensure that citizens, most of whom live in government-built housing, have ready access to religious organizations traditionally associated with their ethnic groups by helping such institutions find space in these housing complexes. The Government maintains a semiofficial relationship with the Muslim community through the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (MUIS). The MUIS advises the Government on concerns of the Muslim community, drafts the approved weekly sermon, regulates some Muslim religious matters, and oversees a mosque-building fund financed by voluntary payroll deductions. The Constitution acknowledges Malay/Muslims to be „the indigenous people of Singapore“ and charges the Government specifically to promote their political, educational, religious, economic, social, cultural, and language interests.

The 1961 Women’s Charter gives women, among other rights, the right to own property, conduct trade, and receive divorce settlements. Muslim pot enjoy most of the rights and protections of the Women’s Charter; however, for the most part, Muslim marriage law falls under the administration of the Muslim Law Act, which empowers the Shari’a court to oversee such matters. The act also allows Muslim men to practice polygamy. Requests to take additional wives may be refused by the Registry of Muslim Marriages, which solicits the views of existing wives and reviews the financial capability of the husband. As of 2007, there were 44 applications for polygamous marriage and 13 applications were approved.

The Presidential Council for Minority Rights examines all pending bills to ensure that they do not disadvantage a particular group. It also reports to the Government on matters affecting any racial or religious community and investigates complaints. There were no complaints or reports to the Presidential Council on Minority Rights from the fiscal year 2005/2006.

The Government does not permit religious instruction in public schools.

There are official holy days for each major religion in the country: Hari Raya Haji and Hari Raya Puasa for Muslims, Christmas and Good Friday for Christians, Deepavali for Hindus, and Vesak Day for Buddhists.

The Government promotes interfaith understanding indirectly by sponsoring activities to promote interethnic harmony. Because the primary ethnic minorities are predominantly of one faith each, government programs to promote ethnic harmony have implications for interfaith relations. In February 2006, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong unveiled the Community Engagement Programme (CEP). The goal of the CEP is to promote multiracial and interreligious harmony, in part so that a strong foundation would be in place should an incident that could provoke ethnic/religious discord, such as a religiously related terrorist attack, occur in the country. The CEP has held numerous community-based seminars, worked with trade unions to form cluster working groups on religious and community harmony, and launched a new website as a platform for communication and dialogue.

The Government restricts certain religious groups by application of the Societies Act. In 1982 the Minister for Home Affairs dissolved the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, also known as the Unification Church.[citation needed] In 1972 the Government deregistered the Singapore Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses on the grounds that its existence was prejudicial to public welfare and order because its members refuse to perform military service (obligatory for all male citizens), salute the flag, or swear oaths of allegiance to the state.[citation needed] At the time, there were approximately 200 Jehovah’s Witnesses in the country; as of 2007 there were approximately two thousand.[citation needed] Although the Court of Appeals in 1996 upheld the rights of members of Jehovah’s Witnesses to profess, practice, and propagate their religious belief, and the Government does not arrest members for being believers, the result of deregistration has been to make public meetings of Jehovah’s Witnesses illegal. Nevertheless, since the 1996 ruling, no charges have been brought against persons attending or holding Jehovah’s Witness meetings in private homes.

The Government can also influence religious practice through the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act. The act was passed in 1990 and revised in 2001 in response to actions that the Government viewed as threats to religious harmony. This includes aggressive and „insensitive“ proselytizing and „the mixing of religion and politics.“ The act established the Presidential Council on Religious Harmony, which reports to the Minister for Home Affairs and is empowered to issue restraining orders against leaders and members of religious groups to prevent them from carrying out political activities, „exciting disaffection against“ the Government, creating „ill will“ between religious groups, or carrying out subversive activities. These orders place individuals on notice that they should not repeat such acts; contravening a restraining order can result in fines of up to $6,622 (SGD 10,000) and up to two years‘ imprisonment for a first offense. The act also prohibits judicial review of its enforcement or of any possible denial of rights arising from it.

Missionaries, with the exception of members of Jehovah’s Witnesses and representatives of the Unification Church, are permitted to work and to publish and distribute religious texts. However, while the Government does not prohibit evangelical activities, in practice it discourages activities that might upset the balance of intercommunal relations. As of 2007, authorities did not detain any Jehovah’s Witnesses for proselytizing.

The Government has banned all written materials published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society and other corporations of Jehovah’s Witnesses. In practice this has led to confiscation of Bibles published by the groups, although the Bible itself has not been outlawed. A person in possession of banned literature can be fined up to SGD 2,000 (USD 1,324) and jailed up to 12 months for a first conviction.[citation needed]

There were no government seizures of Jehovah’s Witnesses literature already in the country during the previous 12-month period. In August 2006 one individual was detained briefly for attempting to bring Jehovah’s Witnesses publications into the country from Malaysia. In this instance, the literature was confiscated and he was convicted of smuggling prohibited media. Authorities fined the individual SGD 6,000 (USD 3,846).[citation needed]

There were reports of Jehovah’s Witnesses students being suspended from school for refusing to sing the national anthem or participate in the flag ceremony.

There were 23 members of Jehovah’s Witnesses incarcerated in the armed forces detention barracks because they refused to carry out the legal obligation for all male citizens to serve in the armed forces. The initial sentence for failure to comply with the military service requirement is 15 months‘ imprisonment, to which 24 months are added upon a second refusal. Failure to perform annual military reserve duty, which is required of all those who have completed their initial two-year obligation, results in 40-day sentences; a 12-month sentence is usual after four such refusals. All of the Jehovah’s Witnesses in detention were incarcerated for failing to perform their initial military obligations and expect to serve a total of 39 months.

The Compulsory Education Act of 2000 mandates attendance at public schools for all children, with few exceptions. In response to concern from the Malay/Muslim community regarding the fate of madrassahs, the Government temporarily exempted madrassah students from compulsory school attendance, allowing attendance at a madrassah in lieu of a public school. However, according to local press reports, if a madrassah does not meet minimum academic standards by 2008, its students would have to transfer either to a madrassah that does meet such standards or to a public school.[citation needed]

There were no religious prisoners or detainees in the country.

There were no reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious belief, which are illegal in Singapore.

Ethnic Malays constituted the great majority of the country’s Muslim community. Attitudes held by the Malay and non-Malay communities regarding one another are based on both ethnicity and religion, which in effect are impossible to separate.

The Government enforced ethnic ratios for publicly subsidized housing, where the majority of citizens live and own their own units. The policy was designed to prevent ethnic/racial ghettos. When a housing development is at or near the limit for a particular ethnic group, the policy sometimes encourage owners to sell their apartments to persons of underrepresented groups.

Villa Herberts

Die Villa Herberts, auch Villa Waldfrieden, ist ein architektonisch bedeutendes und unter Denkmalschutz stehendes Wohnhaus im Wuppertaler Wohnquartier Hesselnberg (Unterbarmen).

Die Villa Herberts, auch „Haus Waldfrieden“, liegt in einem ca. 15 Hektar großen Park. Charakteristisch sind ihre ausgeprägt organischen Formen.

Das Gebäude wurde von 1946 bis 1949 nach einem Entwurf des Architekten und Malers Franz Krause für den Wuppertaler Lackfabrikanten Kurt Herberts erbaut. Es gilt als Beispiel der „organischen Architektur“ und zeigt Einflüsse der Architektur Hans Scharouns und Hugo Härings. Die Bauweise entsprach auch den anthroposophisch geprägten Vorstellungen von Kurt Herberts, der hier bis zu seinem Tode im Jahr 1989 lebte.

2003 wurden hier Teile des Films Agnes und seine Brüder gedreht.

Vom Januar bis zum Herbst 2006 wurde die leerstehende Villa für das von Red Bull gesponserte Outsides-Projekt angemietet, das im Oktober 2006 in einer corporate streetart attack von 22 internationalen Streetart-Künstlern mündete. Anschließend, gleichfalls noch 2006, wurde die Villa mitsamt Park von dem in Wuppertal lebenden Künstler Tony Cragg erworben und gehört heute zum Ensemble des Skulpturenpark Waldfrieden. Nach einer umfassenden Sanierung und gebäudetechnischen Modernisierung wird die Villa für Veranstaltungen und Büroräume der Cragg Foundation genutzt.


Singapore under Sommer-OL 1972

Singapore under Sommer-OL 1972. Sju sportsutøvere, fem menn og to kvinner fra Singapore deltok i tre sporter under Sommer-OL 1972 i München. De vant ikke noen medaljer.

Afghanistan • Albania • Algerie • Argentina • Australia • Bahamas • Barbados • Belgia • Bermuda • Bolivia • Britisk Honduras • Bulgaria • Burma • Brasil • Canada • Ceylon • Chile • Colombia • Costa Rica • Cuba • Dahomey • Danmark • Den dominikanske  republikk • Ecuador • Egypt • Elfenbenskysten • El Salvador • Etiopia • Fiji • Filippinene • Finland • Frankrike • Gabon • Ghana • Guatemala • Guyana • Haiti • Hellas • Hongkong • India • Indonesia • Iran • Irland • Island • Israel • Italia • Jamaica • Japan • De amerikanske Jomfruøyer • Jugoslavia • Kambodsja • Kamerun • Kenya • Kina • Kongo • Kuwait • Lesotho • Libanon • Liberia • Liechtenstein • Luxembourg • Madagaskar • Malaysia • Malawi • Mali • Malta • Marokko • Mexico • Monaco • Mongolia • Nepal • Nederland • Nederlandske Antiller • New Zealand • Nicaragua • Niger • Nigeria • Nord-Korea • Norge • Pakistan • Panama • Paraguay • Peru • Polen • Portugal • Puerto Rico • Romania • San Marino • Saudi-Arabia • Senegal • Singapore • Somalia • Sovjetunionen • Spania • Storbritannia • Sudan • Surinam • Sveits • Sverige • Swaziland • Syria • Sør-Korea • Tanzania • Thailand • Togo • Trinidad og Tobago • Tsjad • Tsjekkoslovakia • Tunisia • Tyrkia • Uganda • Ungarn • Uruguay • USA • Venezuela • Vest-Tyskland • Vietnam • Zambia • Østerrike • Øst-Tyskland • Øvre Volta

1948 London • 1952 Helsingfors • 1956 Melbourne • 1960 Roma • 1968 Mexico by • 1972 München • 1976 Montreal • 1984 Los Angeles • 1988 Seoul • 1992 Barcelona • 1996 Atlanta • 2000 Sydney • 2004 Athen • 2008 Beijing • 2012 London

Гулистан (торговый центр)


Государственный торговый центр «Гулистан» или Русский базар (туркм. „Gülistan“ söwda merkezi — Rus bazary) — центральный городской базар Ашхабада, один из самых крупных в столице. Расположен в центре города. Несмотря на появление в Ашхабаде новых магазинов и торговых центров, базар продолжает пользоваться популярностью среди жителей города и туристов. Его регулярно посещают иностранные делегации. Ассортимент товаров чрезвычайно велик. Внутри располагаются закусочные.

Проект архитектора Владимира Высотина разработан в 1965—1969 годах. Скульптор — Клыч Ярмамедов. Базар построен в 1972—1982 годах. В 1984 году за постройку базара архитекторам и строителям дали премию Совмина СССР.

В 2001 году турецкой компанией «Экол» проведена реконструкция: обновлены торговые точки, магазины и продуктовые ларьки. Комплекс покрыт белым мрамором. В 2007 году на вещевом отделе базара был пожар.

Арчабильское шоссе | Центральная площадь | Проспект Гарашсызлык | Проспект Нейтралитета | Проспект Махтумкули

Мечети: Туркменбаши Рухы | Эртугрул Гази

Музеи: Государственный музей | Музей ковра | Музей изобразительных искусств Музей национальных ценностей
Другие научно-просветительские учреждения: Зоопарк | Культурный центр
См. также: Музеи Ашхабада

Монумент Независимости | Монумент Нейтралитета | Монумент Конституции | Монумент жертвам ашхабадского землетрясения| Флагшток |
См. также: Памятники Ашхабада

Театры: Главный драматический театр | Русский драматический театр | Студенческий театр | Молодёжный театр | Кукольный театр
Цирки: Цирк
Стадионы: Стадион «Ашхабад» | Стадион «Олимпийский» | Стадион «Копетдаг» | Водно-спортивный комплекс | Комплекс зимних видов спорта | Ледовый дворец | Ипподром
См. также: Театры Ашхабада | Список кинотеатров Ашхабада

Дворец президента | Дворец духовности | Дворец счастья

Ашхабадский метрополитен | Вокзалы: Вокзал | Автовокзал | Аэропорт
См. также: Общественный транспорт Ашхабада | Канатная дорогая | Детская железная дорога | Мосты Ашхабада

Парк «Ашхабад» | Аллея вдохновения | Ботанический сад | Тропа здоровья | Фонтанный комплекс «Огузхан и сыновья» | Мир сказок Туркменбаши
См. также: Сады и парки Ашхабада

Культурно-развлекательный центр «Алем» | Детский мир | Русский базар | Телебашня | Огузкент | Йылдыз | Университет | Медуниверситет | Сельхоз
См. также: Вузы Ашхабада

Martin Rev

Martin Rev (full name Martin Reverby, born December 18, 1947) is an American musician and the instrumentalist in the rock band Suicide. He also has a solo career and has released several solo albums for a number of labels, including ROIR and Puu. His style varies widely from release to release, from electronic no wave (Martin Rev) to bubblegum pop (See Me Ridin, Strangeworld) to heavy synthesizer rock (To Live).

Rev also works with Stefan Roloff, doing soundtracks for Roloff’s video work. He contributed to the Raveonettes‘ 2005 album, Pretty in Black.

In 2008, while Martin was working on Stigmata, his wife Mari died. The album, dedicated to her, is strong in religious imagery[citation needed] with most songs being titled in Latin. Kris Needs called the album a „brilliantly executed excursion into modern electronic classical music“.

In 2008, Blast First Petite released Suicide: 1977–1978, a 6-CD box-set.


KWID (101.9 FM) is a Spanish language radio station out of Las Vegas and the station is branded as 101.9 La Buena. Owned by Howard Kamelson, through licensee Lotus Broadcasting Corp., the station’s studios are in the unincorporated community of Spring Valley in Clark County and its transmitter is on Black Mountain in Henderson.

This is a reassignment of a callsign. The original KWID was a shortwave radio station based in San Francisco, California, commissioned by the federal government in World War II to reach an international audience. It served as the basis for what later became the Voice of America.

101.9 FM signed on as easy listening KRGN in 1963.

In the early 70s, it flipped to KFM 102 under the call letters KFMS and played an automated Top 40 format. From 1978-1980, KFMS played a well-rounded AOR format.

On January 1, 1981, KFMS flipped to country still under the name KFM 102, drawing the ire of the AOR listeners. A month later, KENO FM-92 switched to AOR, and later became KOMP.

On January 7, 2000, at 3 p.m., KFMS flipped to top 40/CHR as 101.9 KISS FM. KFMS broadcast Rick Dees‘ morning radio program in the morning and Buck Head Show for evenings. Buck Head was later syndicated back to Star 98.7 until he was eventually transferred to the Los Angeles Market.

The grouping of 102.7 FM KIIS in Los Angeles, 1220 AM KIIS in Santa Clarita, 97.7 FM KAVS in the Antelope Valley, 105.3 FM KYHT in Barstow/Victor Valley, and 101.9 FM KFMS in Las Vegas created a nearly continuous coverage of KIISFM between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. However, KFMS was branded as KISS instead of KIIS.

As time went on KFMS began adding more local DJs like Kate and Rick Kelly from 93.1 FM and after KYHT flipped to Y105 in 2001, KFMS discontinued simulcasting programming from KIIS in Los Angeles, became more Hip hop leaning, and began a local morning show hosted by Trejo and Nikki, but still continued airing the nationally syndicated Rick Dees Weekly Top 40 program.

In December 2002, 101.9 KISS FM signed off, and began stunting for several days, airing a seemingly endless repeat of Guns N‘ Roses‘ „Welcome to the Jungle“. Once the dust cleared in January 2003, 101.9 FM became Rhythmic CHR Wild 102, Where Hip Hop Lives and changing the call letters to KWID. Station management claimed „we got tired of playing Avril Lavigne and Britney Spears“.

In late 2004, KWID flipped to Mexican oldies La Preciosa 101.9. After Lotus Communications took over, the branding changed to La Buena 101.9.


Gordon Sandeman

Gordon Sandeman (1810 – 14 March 1897) was an Australian politician and a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, Queensland Legislative Assembly ,and the Queensland Legislative Council.

Sandeman was born in Edinburgh and was the son of a merchant. He emigrated to the Moreton Bay district in 1838 and established a mercantile business. He also acquired significant pastoral interests in the Wide Bay and Burnett districts. After suffering some financial difficulties in the 1880s Sandeman returned to the United Kingdom where he died aged 87.

In 1856, Sandeman was elected unopposed as the member for Moreton, Wide Bay, Burnett and Maranoa in the first New South Wales Legislative Assembly under responsible government. Sandeman’s election occurred prior to the separation of Queensland from New South Wales in 1859 and his electorate was in an area which is currently part of South-East Queensland. He resigned from parliament after 18 months to concentrate on his business interests.

After Queensland separated from New South Wales, Sandeman represented the seat of Leichhardt in the Queensland Legislative Assembly from 1863 to 1870. In 1874 he was then appointed to the Queensland Legislative Council, holding that position till it was declared vacant in 1886.

Goalpariya dialect

Goalpariya (Assamese: গুৱালপাৰীয়া Gûwalpariya) (Bengali: গোয়ালপারীয়া Gûyalpariya) is a group of regional Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in the present-day Dhubri, Goalpara, Kokrajhar and Bongaigaon districts of the erstwhile undivided Goalpara district of Assam, India. It is prevalent with the Indo-Aryan Kamrupi dialects to its east and North Bengali dialects to its west, amidst a number of Tibeto-Burman speech communities. The basic characteristic of the Goalpariya dialect is that it is a composite one into which words of different concerns and regions have been amalgamated.

There are three identified dialects in this group: (1) Eastern, (2) Western and (3) Intermediate. Scholars from Assam associate these dialects with the Assamese language. Chatterji (1926) classifies Western Goalpariya with the North Bengali dialects, and (Toulmin 2006) classes all Goalpariya dialects, including Eastern Goalpariya (Bongaigaon), in Kamatapuri lects.

The Goalpara region is the westernmost part of Brahmaputra Valley. It is bounded in north by Bhutan, on the east by Kamrup region, on the south by Garo Hills of Meghalaya and on the west by Cooch Behar district, Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal and Rangpur District of Bangladesh.

The region has never been a separate political entity. In ancient times it was included Pragjyotisha of Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas. Subsequently, region formed a part of Kamarupa kingdom. The Ratnapitha division of Kamarupa kingdom included the Goalpara region.

Later region became a part of the Kamata kingdom and later a part of Koch Hajo, the domain of Raghudeva and Parikshit Narayana, from 1581 to about 1615, when the Mughals took control over the region and constituted a Sarkar. The British received this region as the Diwani of Bengal in the 18th century, and it became a part of Colonial Assam in 1826.

Birendranath Dutta identifies three main dialects. One he classifies as Eastern Goalpariya, with two sub-varieties: the lects around Abhayapuri and Goalpara towns forming one; and the lects around Krishnai, Dudhnai and Dhupdhara forming the other. Locally, the speeches in this region are individually given names: Habraghatiya, Bausiya, Namdaniya and Barahajari. Under Western Goalpariya, Dutta discusses two separate dialects: the lects around Gauripur (locally called Ghulliya); and the lects around Salkocha (locally called Jharua). Dutta considers the Salkocha dialect as the intermediate dialect.

The Goalpariya dialects have been subject of much controversy, primarily because they fall on a dialect continuum. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a debate on whether they were dialects of Bengali or Assamese languages. The Irish linguist George Abraham Grierson claimed in his Linguistic Survey of India that the western and southern dialects were Rajbonshi, and thus a northern Bengali dialect; and that the eastern dialect was Assamese. He did not find any linguistic uniformity between Ahom-dominated east Assam and the Goalpara–Kamrup region or with Bengal. Bengali linguist Suniti Kumar Chatterji also followed this classification in his thesis, adding western Goalpariya to the northern Bengali dialects. The debate never died down and authors continue to critically examine the nation building aspects of this debate.

Assamese scholars consider Goalpariya is a part of the Assamese dialects, specifically, a western Assamese dialect. The two erstwhile western districts of Assam, Kamrup and Goalpara, possess several local dialects. The Goalpariya dialect is similar to the Rajbonshi dialect which evolved under the Koch dynasty, and also similar to Bengali dialects spoken in northern Bengal. The differences between the eastern and western Assamese dialects are wide and range over the whole field of phonology, morphology and, not infrequently, vocabulary.

The dialects of Goalpara straddle the Assamese-Bengali language divides and display features from both languages. Though the phonemes in the eastern dialects approach those of Assamese, the western dialect approach those of Bengali. The distinctive velar fricative /x/ present in Assamese is present in the eastern dialect, but absent in the western dialect. The dental and alveolar distinction in Bengali are found in the western dialect, but merged into alveolars in the eastern dialect in consonance with Assamese. Further the aspirated /ch/ is present in Bengali as well as the western dialect, but absent in eastern Goalparia dialect and Assamese.

The nouns in Goalpariya language takes [i] or [ni] as suffix to indicate feminine gender. If the noun ends in a vowel, it replaces the vowel with [i], if in consonant it suffixes [ni] as feminine marker. For example,

Verb: Kha (to eat)

The people who speak this dialect, call themselves deshi, a dominant section, leaving out the Bodos, Rabhas, Mechs, Chawtals and other communities of the region. They call their dialect as deshi bhasa. A section of these people are known as Rajbongshi, which means men of royal descent who are Koch in origin. To trace the intermingling nature of this dialect, one can look its words. For example, the word kechha, meaning story, could have been derived from the Urdu word kissa and transformed itself into the Goalpariya dialect. The Urdu influence may be traced to the Mughal general, Mir Jumla, who, during his invasion of Assam, had pitched his military camp at Panbari in Dhubri district, probably due to the Panbari Mosque which was used by Muslim soldiers. Indeed, a section of the Mughals had settled in the district and the process of acculturation followed. There are many other Arabic, Persian and Urdu words in use in the Goalpariya dialect such as roshan, haram, nasta, chacha, chachi, bhabi, nana and nani. These are particularly used by the Muslim community who makes the major portion of population in the region.

There are some variations in the dialect as one move from one place to another which is not surprising as when there is a physical separation in terms of distance. According to Birendra Nath Dutta, the former president of the Asom Sahitya Sabha, the old district can roughly be divided into two zones, the eastern and the western, on the basis of variation in their dialects. The eastern zone is contiguous to the district of Kamrup and the western zone is closer to north Bengal. Thus, moi ahilo in Assamese becomes moiahilung in the eastern zone and moiasilong in the western zone. Moiahilung resembles the dialect of Kamrup district and differs a little from that of the west zone. As the eastern zone is close to Kamrup district, it could not keep itself aloof from the latter’s influence.

In this context, the following examples will serve to show that the dialect of these zones have many points in common with that of Kamrup.

Eastern Kamrup: 1. Api gila gharor para olaw 2. Bhal amta kaikhal
Western Kamrup: 1. Api gila gharar para ola 2. Bhal atmu kai khalak.

The western zone on the other hand, being contiguous to North Bengal, could not remain unaffected from the Bengali influence. For example, Bengali words such as matha (head), pakhi (birds) and Assamese words such as duar (door), chuli (hair), bihan (morning), which were used in early Assamese, are used by the people of Goalpara. There are some peculiarities in the dialect of Goalpara. For example, uyak aisa khaibe (he has to come), mok ei kamta or kajta kara khai (I have to do this work). Again, sometimes “L” becomes “N” in western dialect, such as lage becomes nage and lal becomes nal (red), infusing another difference in the dialect. In the Goalpariya dialect, expressions such as pet peta (rotten), tiktika (deep) are very common. It is worth noting that the Maithili word angcha (garment), and Hindi words such as kawari (door) and damad (bridegroom) have directly entered into the Goalpariya dialect and are still found in the same form and carrying the same meaning.

Monastère des Bénédictines de Caen

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Caen

Le monastère des Bénédictines de Caen est un ancien monastère fondé par les sœurs de l’Ordre de Saint-Benoît à Caen. Le premier monastère est fondé en 1643 dans l’ancien hôtel de Loraille. Chassées à la Révolution française, les sœurs se réinstallent en 1816 dans l’ancien couvent des Cordeliers qu’elles font reconstruire. À la suite de la destruction d’une grande partie des bâtiments monacaux en 1944 pendant la bataille de Caen, un nouveau monastère fut construit à Couvrechef. Ce dernier, transformé à partir de 1986 en résidence pour personnes âgées, est protégé au titre des monuments historiques depuis 2005.

Le , le monastère est détruit par les bombardements alliés. Les sœurs déménagent alors dans le château de Vaux-sur-Aure, près de Bayeux. Dans le cadre de la reconstruction de Caen, les bénédictines sont expropriés et leur ancien terrain est attribué à la communauté des hospitalières de la Miséricorde pour qu’elles reconstruisent leur clinique détruite pendant la guerre. Deux solutions sont alors considérées. Les sœurs envisagent de s’installer définitivement à Vaux-sur-Aure, alors que le Ministère de la Reconstruction et de l’Urbanisme (MRU) propose de reconstruire le monastère à Hérouville-Saint-Clair. Une des sœurs de la communauté propose une alternative : construire le nouvel établissement à côté du hameau de Couvrechef. C’est cette troisième option qui est retenue. Situé dans la plaine de Caen, le terrain agricole répond aux exigences du MRU qui souhaite reloger les ordres contemplatifs à l’écart de la ville.

Dès 1953, les sœurs préparent leur retour et prennent contact avec Dom Aubourg, moine bénédictin d’origine normande de l’abbaye Saint-Pierre de Solesmes. Celui-ci propose aux sœurs de confier le projet à Jean Zunz. Ce jeune architecte parisien inexpérimentée en matière d’architecture religieuse est assisté par Marcel Clot, architecte de la ville. En collaboration avec le moine bénédictin, il dresse les plans du monastère. On convie Dom Gabriel Sortais, père général de l’ordre des cisterciens, formé à l’École des beaux-arts, à donner son opinion. Celle-ci est positive car le projet respecte le plan traditionnel des abbayes cisterciennes tout en l’adaptant aux exigences modernes. La première pierre est posée officiellement le 24 septembre 1953 en présence de André Jacquemin, évêque de Bayeux et Lisieux. La réception définitive des travaux a lieu le 16 avril 1959, mais la dédicace solennelle ne se déroule que le 24 septembre 1960.

Les plans, prévus pour un monastère d’une communauté de 200 religieuses, avaient déjà du être revus à la baisse car elles n’étaient plus que 80 au moment de la conception du projet. L’indemnité de guerre avait toutefois permis de construire un ensemble monumental. Mais les sœurs sont de moins en moins nombreuses. Incapables d’affronter les difficultés matérielles résultant de l’entretien du monastère, elles décident en 1986 de céder les lieux à la maison de retraite Saint-Benoît. La communauté conserve la jouissance de l’église et de la salle capitulaire. Les quelques religieuses s’installent dans l’ancienne hôtellerie et l’aumônerie. Ces bâtiments sont modernisés ; une nouvelle chapelle plus petite est aménagée à cette occasion. Afin de restructurer la maison de retraite, le bâtiment de la dômerie est supprimé et l’espace du parloir est restructuré, tandis que des travaux d’extension sont effectués au sud. La plupart des espaces intérieurs sont toutefois préservés.

Les façades et les toitures de l’ensemble des bâtiments à l’exception des constructions ajoutées (bâtiment sud et cage d’ascenseur extérieure dans la galerie ouest du cloître), ainsi que le réfectoire dans sa totalité sont inscrits. L’église abbatiale et la salle capitulaire en totalité sont classées.

Le claustra du chœur de l’église est fermé par un vitrail créé par Sergio de Castro (), la Création du Monde. Des nombreux critiques et historiens de l’art tels que Denys Sutton, André Chastel ou Jacques Thuillier, ont reconnu cette verrière, de 6 m de hauteur pour 20 m de largeur, comme étant une pièce majeure du vitrail de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle.

Verrière de la Création du Monde par Sergio de Castro, 1956-59

Septième Jour de la Création: Le Repos Divin



Harworth is a small town in the county of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands of England. It is approximately 8 miles (13 km) north of Worksop. Together with the neighbouring mining town of Bircotes, it forms the civil parish of Harworth and Bircotes, with a combined population of nearly 8,000 residents. The population of the civil parish was measured at 7,948 in the 2011 Census. The settlements are part of the modern district of Bassetlaw, which combined the district of Worksop and the district of Retford.

The Harworth coal mine opened in 1921 and produced coal for the power stations on the River Trent. A new pit tower was built in 1989 when the pit was at its peak of production but seven years later the colliery was ‚mothballed‘. In 2015, it was announced that the pit tower would be demolished and the colliery site would be used for new housing.

The town’s name is from Old English har „grey“ (compare modern hoary“) and worth (also worō, worþ) „enclosure“. The name was recorded as Herwirth in 1136.

The town – once a busy coalmining community – is particularly noteworthy as the home of Tom Simpson (1937–1967), one of Britain’s greatest road racing cyclist – World Champion in 1965. Tom began his cycling career as a club member at Harworth and District Cycling Club. After his death in France, the body was brought back to Nottinghamshire and interred in Harworth’s cemetery. A small museum dedicated to his achievements (opened in August 2001) can be found in the Harworth and Bircotes sports and social club.

There is also a history of Gurkhas being here during the Second World War.

Author Lindsey Kelk, hails from Harworth and attended North Border Comprehensive School from 1992 – 1999.

There is one Church of England primary School in Harworth and a Catholic primary school in Bircotes. The village is also served by Serlby Park Academy, a 3–18 school in Bircotes.